Essay on Pollution

essay on pollution in english for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Essay on Pollution: ‘Pollution’ is the introduction of substances that are harmful, and hazardous to the life-sustaining in the atmosphere of our planet. Pollution is cannot be controlled by any man-made boundaries and almost every living organism on the planet is affected by it. Though pollution has been an issue for a long time in the 21st century, its harmful effects are causing severe damage to the planet and that too at a rapid speed. It has been observed that several natural processes and cycles are disturbed. Many species of animals are losing their natural habitats and have either gone extinct or, are endangered.

These negative impacts are becoming more and more noticeable with each passing year, be it the depletion of the Ozone layer which protects us from the harmful UV rays or, the rise in the global temperature in other words ‘Global warming’. These are caused mostly due to human activities which are harmful to the environment in more ways than one.

Major forms of pollutions are – air pollution, water pollution, and soil pollution.

Air Pollution

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Air Pollution

Air pollution could be defined as contamination of air with some harmful mixture of particles in the atmosphere, the air is essential to almost every living creature in the globe. 

The most common substances that cause air pollution include harmful gases and smokes from factories and industries, harmful gases such as CFCs and other forms of oxides produced by automobiles, burning solid wastes such as plastic, Sulphur oxides, smoke produced by radioactive particles, etc. that are being released into the atmosphere. Natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions can also cause air pollution, which occurs rarely. In February 2020, a volcano eruption was observed in Indonesia’s Mt. Merapi which reportedly spewed gas and ash up to 6km into the sky. More than 300 people were killed in the last eruption on Mt. Merapi in 2019.

Due to the depleted inhalation of oxygen, it is again giving birth to several severe diseases such as respiratory issues, asthma, lungs and heart diseases, etc. Moreover, it also affects the cardiovascular system depending on the exposure to the pollutants. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 4.2 million people die every year as a result of exposure to outdoor pollution.

Water Pollution

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Water Pollution

Water is a natural resource and is a basic essential for life to sustain on the earth. The addition of harmful substances in water making it unusable and adversely affecting the lives associated with it is commonly referred to, as water pollution. Some of these pollutants include industrial wastes, sewage wastes that are being dumped directly into seas or, rivers as well as agricultural wastes, which is resulting in the rise in the fatal rate of aquatic species.

This results in loss of habitat to marine life and also reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. It affects the flora and fauna of the sea organisms and when these organisms are consumed by humans, cause harmful diseases. Also, the drinking water which is produced from these polluted natural water resources can cause diseases such as cholera, jaundice, typhoid, etc. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 3.5 million people die from a water-related disease every year.

Soil Pollution

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Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is also known as land pollution, is the process of degradation of the earth’s surface by improper industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic activities. This is mostly caused due to the dumping of industrial wastes into the land. Besides that, the usage of insecticides, pesticides, and other similar chemical compounds play a major role in soil pollution. Mining and oil refineries constructions also are key soil pollutants.

These in turn make the soil toxic, making it infertile and unusable for agricultural purposes. This is a major issue, especially in those countries where a major part of the population depends on agriculture.

Besides these, there are many other forms of pollutions such as noise pollution, plastic pollution, light pollution, thermal pollution, etc.

One of the most devastating effects of the pollution that’s being caused to the planet is Global Warming. It is the gradual increase in Earth’s average atmospheric temperature over the past century, primarily due to the increased levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants.

Burning of fossil fuels, emission of harmful gases from automobile combustion and deforestation are the major contributors to this. Once entered into the atmosphere, these gases can remain there for several years to come. On top of that, the emission of these gases has increased alarmingly which makes it a major reason for concern. Global warming is expected to have its effect on every living being on the planet including man, some as far as the extinction of the whole species.

Actions Taken to prevent pollution

Pollution and its effects are not limited by the national boundaries. Therefore, various countries around the globe have started spreading awareness and initiated several steps to curb pollution and its impacts.

Keeping these in mind the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) came into existence to address these pollution-related issues at an international scale. In the year of 1972, UNEP was founded, after the Conference on the Human Environment of the United Nations. It has addressed several issues such as climate change, disaster, and conflicts, ecosystem management, environmental governance, harmful substances, etc.

It has registered several successes such as the Montreal Protocol in 1987, for limiting the emission of gases that were reportedly thinning the planet’s ozone layer and the Minamata Convention in 2012 to limit the use of toxic mercury. UNEP has sponsored the development of solar loan programs, financing 100,000 people for solar power systems in India and other developing countries around the world. They also sponsor the Marshland project in the Middle East, to manage the marshland area in an environmentally sound manner.

UNEP’s goal is to provide leadership and encourage caring for the environment and allowing people to improve their quality of life without putting the safe survival of future generations at risk.

Besides these, it is also very important that citizens are well aware and are willing to make the necessary changes, to make an impact worldwide. These can be actions such as limiting the use of vehicles or, use fuel-efficient vehicles, consider electric vehicles, keeping the surroundings clean, encouraging, and practicing the habit of recycling and reuse and planting more trees.


To sum it up, it’d be safe to say that all types of pollution are hazardous and come with severe consequences. Therefore, the pollution must be controlled otherwise it puts the survival of every living being on the planet at risk. It may be different in form but if the masses are properly informed, educated, and inspired, with joint efforts pollution can be controlled. So, we must take a stand and work as one united force in tackling this issue and create a better, safer, and more sustainable planet for future generations.

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